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  1. Define antimicrobial susceptibility testing and explain its significance in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  2. What is antibiogram?
  3. What is the therapeutic dose of a drug?
  4. Mention the major goal of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  5. Outline the cases or scenarios in which antimicrobial susceptibility testing is best prescribed for a patient.
  6. Enumerate the reasons for conducting antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  7. What is the full meaning of the acronyms “NCCLS” and “CLSI”?
  8. Mention the major task of NCCLS/CLSI as it relates to antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  9. Succinctly describe the “susceptible category” and “resistance category” of a drug.
  10. What is the “intermediate category” of an antibiotic?
  11. What is IZD?
  12. What does MALDI-TOF stand for?
  13. Briefly describe the phenotypic and genotypic detection techniques used to decipher drug resistant genes in potential pathogenic microbes.
  14. Write a short note on the VITEK 2 automated compact system for microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test.
  15. How does colorimeter differ from colorimetry?
  16. What is a spectrophotometer used for?
  17. Define spectrophotometry.
  18. Outline the benefits of the VITEK 2 automated compact system.
  19. Exhaustively discuss the disk diffusion method of antimicrobial susceptibility test.
  20. What is MIC?
  21. Define MBC.
  22. Succinctly describe the E-test system of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  23. What is the significance of McFarland turbidity standards in antimicrobial susceptibility testing?
  24. How many bacterial cells is a 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard expected to contain?
  25. Outline the materials used for the preparation of McFarland turbidity standards.
  26. Define quality control strains and succinctly explain their significance in antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  27. What does ATCC stand for?
  28. What is the amount of antibiotic powder required to prepare 3 ml of 10 mg/ml solution of drug “A” with 99.4 % potency (994 µg/mg)?
  29. Define diluents and outline the different types of diluents used in microbiological investigations.
  30. What is dilution?      
  31. Define an antibiotic.
  32. Describe in detail antimicrobial agents with examples.
  33. What is selective toxicity?
  34. Why are there fewer antifungal agents than there are antibacterial agents?
  35. Enumerate the characteristics of antimicrobial agents.
  36. Differentiate between narrow-spectrum and broad-spectrum drugs with examples.
  37. Describe in detail the different target sites of antibacterial agents.
  38. What is the therapeutic index of a drug?
  39. Mention 3 antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacteria and describe their general mechanism of action. 
  40. Describe the mechanisms of action of chloramphenicol and tetracyclines.
  41. Discuss in details the mechanism of action of a named fluoroquinolone.
  42. Enumerate 2 antibiotics that inhibit DNA synthesis and succinctly describe their mechanism of action.
  43. Name and describe the mechanism of action of any antimetabolite.  
  44. Explain in details the mechanism of action of a named aminoglycoside.
  45. Succinctly explain the mechanism of action of a named macrolide.
  46. Explain the mechanism of action of flucytosine.
  47. What are polyenes?
  48. List and describe the mechanism of action of any two polyenes.
  49. Mention the natural source of griseofulvin?
  50. X-ray the antimicrobial potential of interferons against viral agents.
  51. Why are there fewer antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal drugs than there are antibacterial drugs?
  52. Write a short note on pharmaceutical microbiology.
  53. What is sterility?
  54. Define sterilization.
  55. Succinctly describe sterility tests and x-ray its importance in pharmaceutical productions.
  56. X-ray biological products while giving suitable examples.
  57. Succinctly describe water for injection.
  58. What is a pyrogen?
  59. What is the main characteristic clinical feature of pyrogens in samples?
  60. Define pyrogenicity.
  61. Define cytokines.
  62. Describe briefly the significance of lipid A molecule or moiety in Gram negative bacteria.
  63. Differentiate between endogenous pyrogens and exogenous pyrogens.
  64. What is a pyrogen test used for?
  65. Mention the full meaning of the acronym “LAL”.
  66. Succinctly describe the biological significance of Limulus polyphemus crab.
  67. What is quality control?
  68. Explain briefly the significance of quality assurance in pharmaceutical productions.
  69. How does quality control differ from quality assurance? 
  70. Enumerate any five agencies or organizations that regulate food and drug productions and mention the respective countries where they operate.
  71. As a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Personnel working in a government Food and Drug Regulation Agency, explain in details how raw materials, water, air supply, equipment and personnel could constitute a major source of microbial contamination in the production processes of a food/pharmaceutical company. 
  72. Enumerate the guidelines for the principles of GMP.
  73. Exhaustively discuss how raw materials, water, personnel, equipment, manufacturing premises and air could be major sources of contamination during pharmaceutical productions.
  74. Enumerate the rules governing GMP.
  75. Succinctly describe air monitoring and its significance in industrial productions.
  76. Differentiate between passive air monitoring and active air monitoring.
  77. What is water quality?
  78. What is the bioavailability of a drug?
  79. Define excipients.
  80. What is drug interaction?
  81. Differentiate between drug-drug interaction and drug-herb interaction.
  82. How does synergistic drug interaction differ from antagonistic drug interaction?
  83. Write a detailed note on pharmacokinetics in relation to drug metabolism in vivo.
  84. Define pharmacodynamics.
  85. Succinctly describe the different routes of drug administration.
  86. What is antibiotic selective pressure?
  87. Using suitable examples, describe in details antibiotic resistance.
  88. Differentiate between vertical transmission and horizontal transmission of resistance genes.
  89. X-ray the different types of antibiotic resistance.
  90. Describe conjugation, transformation and transduction as mechanisms of genetic transfer in relation to antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
  91. Outline and briefly explain the different mechanisms or ways via which microbes ward-off the antimicrobial onslaught of potent antibiotics.
  92. What is the full meaning of ESBL, MBL, VRSA, MRSA, VISA and VRE?
  93. Describe the factors that contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance in the environment.
  94. What is the impact of antibiotic resistance to the economy of any nation?
  95. Outline the effects of antibiotic resistance to both the individual and the public.
  96. Succinctly describe how antibiotic resistance can best be controlled and prevented.
  97. Using suitable examples, succinctly describe multidrug resistant bacteria.
  98. Write a short note on MBL and ESBL organisms.
  99. Explain the clinical significance of MRSA.
  100. What are susceptibility test disks?
  101. What is disinfection?
  102. Define disinfectant.           
  103. Define antisepsis.
  104. What is an antiseptic?
  105. Enumerate the various ways of achieving sterilization in the microbiology laboratory.
  106. Succinctly describe the medical significance of preservation.
  107. What is sanitation?
  108. Define sterilizers.
  109. What are phytochemicals?
  110. Enumerate six phytochemicals found in plants.
  111. What is the major use of rotary evaporator?
  112. Describe soxhlet extractor and its significance in processing plant materials for determining their antimicrobial efficacy.
  113. What is soxhlet extraction?
  114. Write on the merits and demerits of the soxhlet extraction process.
  115. What is DMSO?
  116. What is the major function of the thimble and condenser in the soxhlet extractor?    
  117. Define antibiotic.
  118. How does antibiotic cure infectious diseases?
  119. Some antibiotics are bacteriostatic while others are bacteriocidal. Explain this fact. 
  120. Differentiate between narrow spectrum antibiotics and broad spectrum antibiotics.
  121. Describe in detail Alexander Fleming’s contribution to the discovery and development of antibiotics.
  122. What is the natural/microbial source of penicillin?
  123. How does mutation contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance in microbes?
  124. Succinctly describe the major sources of antibiotics.
  125. Using suitable examples, describe the class of antibiotics known as beta-lactams.
  126. Briefly explain the genetic basis of acquired resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in a named bacterium.   
  127. What are macrolides?
  128. Using suitable examples, describe how quinolones differ from fluoroquinolones.
  129. Mention the natural/microbial source of aminoglycosides and tetracycline.
  130. Describe in details and with examples how the cell wall of bacteria is destroyed by a named antibiotic.
  131. With examples, describe briefly the mechanism of action of antibiotics that target bacterial DNA synthesis.
  132. Describe how protein synthesis in bacteria can be inhibited by named classes of antibiotics.
  133. What is the mechanism of action of antimetabolites?
  134. What is the full meaning of PABA?
  135. Describe in details the characteristics of antibiotics.
  136. What is selective toxicity?
  137. Define antibiotic resistance.
  138. Write a detail note on bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.
  139. Succinctly describe innate resistance.
  140. What is acquired resistance?
  141. Describe in details the biological significance of plasmids in the emergence and spread of drug resistance genes.
  142. What is “ori”?
  143. Define plasmid.
  144. Briefly describe the restriction/cloning site of a plasmid?
  145. What is a chimera?
  146. How are plasmids classified?
  147. Define mutation and succinctly explain its role in the development and spread of antibiotic resistant gene.
  148. What are mutagens?
  149. Describe in detail spontaneous mutation.
  150. What is induced mutation?
  151. What is mutagenesis?
  152. Enumerate and explain briefly the different ways via which pathogens develop resistance to antimicrobial agents.
  153. Describe the functions of conjugation, transformation and transduction as mechanisms of genetic transfer.
  154. What is transfection?

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