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  1. Explain the phrase genetics. 
  2. Describe in detail the process of DNA replication of a named bacterium.
  3. Describe Okazaki fragment.
  4. What is the function of helicase enzyme in DNA replication?
  5. Describe in details transcription and translation.   
  6. Briefly describe the function of DNA ligase and helicase in DNA replication. 
  7. What is replication fork?
  8. What is a gene?
  9. Briefly describe the significance of DNA in the transmission of genetic traits.
  10. Define origin of replication (ori).
  11. Succinctly describe genomic DNA; and outline its major components.
  12. Describe in detail the contribution of Frederick Griffith in unraveling the genetic material of the cell.
  13. DNA is the genetic material of the cell. Explain.
  14. What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
  15. Differentiate between DNA and RNA.
  16. Describe the terms mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.
  17. Describe the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of protein.
  18. Enumerate the functions of protein.
  19. What is an enzyme, and how does it differ from chemical catalysts.
  20. What is a nucleotide?
  21. How does a nucleotide differ from a nucleoside?
  22. Differentiate between purines and pyrimidines using suitable examples.
  23. What are the main components of a nucleotide? 
  24. How does a ribose sugar differ from a deoxyribose sugar?
  25. Enumerate and briefly explain the components of a nucleotide.
  26. Briefly describe the different types of proteins according to their cellular function.
  27. Briefly describe Fredrick’s Griffith’s transformation principle.
  28. Succinctly describe the contributions of Avery Oswald and Alfred D. Hershey in the discovery of DNA as the main genetic material of the cell.
  29. Succinctly explain the term vector with examples.
  30. What is blotting?
  31. Describe the different blotting techniques. 
  32. Define gel electrophoresis technique.
  33. Describe in detail genomic DNA.
  34. Whatis the significance of gel electrophoresis in molecular biology?
  35. Describe in detail the processes involved in gel electrophoresis technique. 
  36. What is gene cloning?
  37. Describe in detail the techniques or steps of gene cloning technique.
  38. What are the biological roles of restriction endonucleases, DNA ligase, Taq polymerase and cloning vector in molecular cloning?
  39. What is a plasmid?
  40. X-ray the properties of plasmids used for gene cloning techniques.
  41. Describe in detail the steps involved in performing the PCR technique.
  42. Polymerase chain reaction is one important tool in research and diagnosis of infectious diseases. Discuss this in respect to its application in research and medical diagnosis.  
  43. Describe in detail the components of a PCR reaction.
  44. Why is Taq Pol the preferred enzyme for PCR technique?
  45. What is the original source of Taq polymerase enzyme?
  46. Explain in detail restriction endonuclease.
  47. What is the main function of DNA ligase in gene cloning technique? 
  48. What is transformation?
  49. What is electroporation?
  50. Define transfection and transduction.
  51. How can a cell be transformed by electroporation and CaCl2?
  52. Succinctly explain high-throughput techniques.
  53. Mention and explain any five high-throughput techniques you know.
  54. X-ray the term biotechnology.
  55. Explain any five applications of biotechnology.
  56. What do you understand by genetically modified organisms (GMOs)?
  57. What is cell immobilization? 
  58. Microorganisms used for biotechnological applications must possess some characteristics. Mention any five of those features.
  59. Succinctly explain the term liposomes.
  60. Briefly explain  the biological significance of liposomes in medicine or biomedical research.
  61. How does the coding region of a gene differ from the promoter region of a gene?
  62. Give reasons why microorganisms are used for biotechnological applications.
  63. Briefly explain the different methods of cell immobilization.     
  64. Define and briefly x-ray the phrases transgenic organisms and genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
  65. Differentiate between bioluminescence and chemiluminescence.
  66. What is reporter gene assay?
  67. How do genetically modified organisms (GMOs) differ from transgenic organisms?
  68. State the reasons why GMOs/GMMs are being developed across the globe.  
  69. Describe the significance of reporter gene assay in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  70. What is a flow cytometer?
  71. How does flow cytometer differ from flow cytometry?
  72. Briefly describe the three major components of the flow cytometer.
  73. What is a cytogram?

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