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  1. What is food microbiology?
  2. X-ray the roles of food microbiologists in food processing industries.
  3. What is food preservation?
  4. Outline the different methods employed in food preservation.
  5. What is pasteurization and who discovered it?
  6. Explain the term appertization as it pertains to food processing; and mention the discoverer of this important food technique.
  7. What are the intrinsic factors that cause food spoilage?
  8. What are the extrinsic factors that cause food spoilage?
  9. Briefly describe food spoilage.
  10. Briefly describe food borne diseases.
  11. What is food intoxifications?
  12. As a food microbiologist, explain in details how you will analyze a named food product for the presence of a named foodborne pathogen.
  13. Enumerate 8 possible bacteria that can cause food borne disease in man.
  14. Mention the causative agents of botulism, cryptosporidiosis and listeriosis.
  15. Explain and differentiate between food intoxification and food infection. 
  16. What is a psychrotolerant microorganism?
  17. Enumerate the major attributes of a microorganism that make it an ideal coliform bacterium.
  18. Enumerate the reasons for microbial food analysis.
  19. Enumerate and briefly explain the different sources of microbial contamination of food and food products.
  20. Define the following phrases: intrinsic factors of food and extrinsic factors of food.
  21. What are the causative agents of ergotism and botulism?
  22. Define xerophiles and osmophiles.
  23. Outline 4 microorganisms implicated in food intoxication.  
  24. What is the full meaning of the acronym “LAL”?
  25. What are single cell proteins (SCPs)?
  26. Enumerate the health benefits of SCPs.
  27. What is an indicator organism?
  28. What does “MPN” stand for?
  29. Enumerate 5 possible indicator organisms that cause food contamination.
  30. What is HTST?
  31. What is HACCP?
  32. Enumerate and briefly explain the seven (7) principles of HACCP.
  33. Briefly describe the methods employed for the enumeration of indicator organisms in contaminated food or food products. 
  34. Enumerate the reasons for microbial food analysis.
  35. Write short note on foodborne diseases/infections and state any 5 symptoms of such illnesses.
  36. Succinctly explain how foodborne infections can be prevented. 
  37. Enumerate thereasons for microbial food analysis.
  38. Briefly describe the significance of industrial microbiology in the industry.
  39. Describe in details the parameters to be controlled in a fermentation vessel.
  40. Explain in details the significance of impeller, spargers and baffles in a fermenter.
  41. Why are the supplies of oxygen critical in fermentations where aerobic organisms are used?
  42. Describe the biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its significance in the industry.
  43. What is the difference between surfactants and biosurfactants?
  44. Define a fermenter.
  45. How does a fermenter differ from a fermentor?
  46. What is strain improvement?
  47. Describe in detail how foam formation affect fermentation processes.
  48. Barley is often preferred in beer production over other cereal grains. Why?
  49. Describe in detail the source and significance of hops in beer production.
  50. Describe in details the different types of beer.
  51. Enumerate the functions of alcoholic fermentation.
  52. Outline and discuss the factors that influence the production of biosurfactants by microbes.
  53. X-ray the different stages involved in beer production.
  54. Enumerate the significance of wort boiling in beer production.
  55. Succinctly explain how semi-continuous fermentation differs from continuous fermentation process.
  56. Which fermentation process gives a steady-state of microbial growth and why?
  57. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous fermentation processes.
  58. Why is fed-batch fermentation process preferred in most industrial production?
  59. Succinctly describe the significance of adjuvants in beer production and enumerate some of the reasons that may also prevent their usage irrespective of their good qualities.
  60. Describe in details batch fermentation and continuous fermentation systems.
  61. Briefly describe the processes involved in the isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms of industrial importance.
  62. In semi-continuous fermentation, the volume of nutrients added to the vessel equals the volume of the fermented medium removed. Why is this so?
  63. Using a flowchart, outline the processes involved in the isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms of industrial importance.
  64. Surfactants are said to be amphiphilic in nature. Explain.
  65. Outline the significance of actinomycetes in the industry.
  66. Enumerate the significance of bacteria in the industry.
  67. List the significance of fungi in industrial production.

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