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  1. Briefly describe environmental microbiology and its significance to humanity.
  2. Define bioremediation.
  3. What is soil microbiology?
  4. Succinctly explain biofertilizers and its benefits over chemical fertilizers.
  5. What is a host-parasite relationship?
  6. Define parasitism.
  7. Succinctly explain microbial symbiotic associations.
  8. Explain in details the different types of symbiotic associations common amongst microbes.
  9. What is amensalism?
  10. Different predation from competition.
  11. With examples describe soil-borne pathogens.
  12. Define biodeterioration.
  13. What is biodegradation?
  14. Briefly describe two harmful association exhibited by microbes in their habitat.
  15. Succinctly explain anaerobic digestion and outline the organisms involved.  
  16. Define methanogenesis.
  17. With suitable examples describe methanogens.
  18. Define acetogenesis.
  19. Using suitable examples, describe acetogens.
  20. What is a landfill?
  21. Describe the different stages of the MPN test.
  22. Briefly describe the rhizosphere effect of the soil and its significance in improving the fertility of the soil.
  23. Explain in details the factors that influence the population of microbes in the soil.
  24. Enumerate the merits and demerits of MPN technique as a microbial enumeration process.
  25. Describe the membrane filtration technique.
  26. Succinctly explain the most probable number (MPN) method of estimating the presence of bacteria in environmental samples.
  27. What are indicator organisms?
  28. Why are faecal  coliform bacteria referred to as indicator organisms?
  29. Define soil.
  30. What are membrane filters?
  31. Describe in details the significance of soil microbes.
  32. X-ray the factors that affect the population of soil microbes.
  33. With suitable examples, describe in details the biogeochemical cycle.
  34. Define greenhouse effect.
  35. What are greenhouse gases?
  36. Explain climate change and global warming.
  37. What is nitrogen fixation?
  38. Enumerate the organisms involved in nitrogen fixation.
  39. Define nitrification, denitrification, ammonification and mineralization.
  40. What is the biological significance of the phosphorus and oxygen cycles?
  41. Succinctly explain composting.
  42. What is phytoremediation?
  43. Define bioaugmentation.
  44. What is biostimulation?
  45. X-ray the factors that affect the process of bioremediation.
  46. What is bioattenuation?
  47. Succinctly describe eutrophication and mention the organisms involved.
  48. What is algal bloom?
  49. Enumerate the environmental consequences of eutrophication.
  50. Outline the factors responsible for eutrophication.
  51. Describe mushroom farming and enumerate the steps involved.
  52. What is biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
  53. Explain in details chemical oxygen demand (COD).
  54. Briefly explain TOC and TOD.
  55. Describe bioleaching and enumerate the microbial community involved.
  56. What is geomicrobiology?
  57. What is astrobiology?
  58. What is weathering?
  59. Enumerate 5 agents of weathering that you know. 
  60. Mention any four (4) processes in which geomicrobiology can be applied.
  61. Briefly explain the application of geomicrobiology in bioremediation and bioleaching.
  62. Enumerate any four (4) geomicrobes and mention one element that each metabolize.
  63. What are siderophores and extremophiles?
  64. Define the term aquifers.
  65. What is microbial energetics?
  66. Differentiate between catabolism and anabolism.
  67. Enumerate the mineralytic effects of rock-eating microbes.
  68. X-ray the factors that influence bioleaching activities.

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