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  1. What is cell culture and passaging?
  2. Describe the different type of cell culture techniques.
  3. Explain how cells for cell culture techniques can be obtained or procured.
  4. Explain the term cell line with examples.
  5. The hood is critical for cell culture techniques. Explain.
  6. Whatare the merits and demerits of cell culture techniques?
  7. Explain the use of antibiotics in some cell culture techniques.
  8. Mention the ways of preventing contamination during cell culture experiments.
  9. X-ray the continued use of animals for biomedical/medical research despite the availability of cell culture techniques.
  10.  Explain the 3R’s guiding the use of animals for biomedical research.
  11. Define and explain the phrases: explants, explantation and cytotoxicity?
  12. X-ray the different physicochemical environmental factors that affect cell culture techniques.
  13. Enumerate the reasons for performing cell culture.
  14. Succinctly describe HeLa cells.
  15. Enumerate the different ways of obtaining cell lines for carrying out cell culture technique.
  16. What is the meaning of the acronym “CHO” as it relates to cell lines?
  17. Highlight on the importance of the hood or biosafety cabinet in cell culture technique.
  18. Why are inverted microscopes preferred in cell culture techniques to other types of microscopes?
  19. Explain the function of haemocytometer and centrifuge in cell culture techniques.
  20. Write a short note on the application of cell culture in any areas of your choice.   
  21.  What is vivisection?
  22. What does the acronym RPMI and DMEM stand for?
  23. Enumerate the components of RPMI 1640 medium.
  24. Outline the procedure for preparing cell culture medium.
  25. What are the reasons for checking cells under the microscope.
  26. Enumerate the procedure of resuscitating a frozen cell culture line.
  27. Describe the term gene therapy.
  28. X-ray the differences between in vivo and ex vivo gene therapy techniques.
  29.  Differentiate between somatic gene therapy and germ line gene therapy.
  30. X-ray the applications of gene therapy for treating genetic disorders.
  31. Succinctly explain the steps used in gene therapy techniques.
  32. What is a codon?
  33. Differentiate between start codon and stop codon.  
  34. Explain the terms transduction and transfection. 
  35.  Differentiate viral vectors from non-viral vectors.
  36. A newborn was having problem fighting some infectious diseases; and was later diagnosed with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency. Explain what this diagnosis implies.
  37. Mention five uses or applications of gene therapy.
  38. What are the ethical issues associated with the application of gene therapy. 
  39. What is a gene?
  40. How does dominant gene differ from recessive gene?
  41. What are autosomes?
  42. How do autosomes differ from chromosomes?
  43. Diagrammatically illustrate the central dogma of molecular biology.
  44. Define the term “vector” as it relates to gene therapy techniques.
  45. What is genetic code?
  46. Draw the structures of adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil and thymine.
  47. Mention the 20 essential amino acids.
  48. What is hereditary?
  49. How does a genetic disorder differ from an infectious disease?
  50. Define restriction enzymes and briefly explain its significance in gene therapy.
  51. Succinctly describe the biological significance of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in iving organisms.
  52. What are transgenes?
  53. Define transfection and transduction.
  54. What are harmless viruses?
  55. Succinctly describe how gene therapy works
  56. For gene therapy to be successful, the right type of vectors must be used. Enumerate the properties of vectors used for gene therapy.
  57. Outline the different areas in which gene therapy can be potentially used.

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